Some people show a significant amount of their gums when they smile. Some are even unable to close their mouth completely. Their are different reasons for this situation: short lips, long maxillary alveolar bone (the bone that harbors the roots of your upper teeth), gum disease, misaligned and protruded teeth, and any disproportion of hard and soft tissues in this area.
Gingival grafts are designed to replace or enhance the amount of gum surrounding a tooth. This surgery is indicated when there are exposed root surfaces due recession. This procedure is performed when there is not enough gum tissue remaining to help support a tooth. Gingival grafts are also required when excessive recession has occurred exposing the root of the tooth.